Basic knowledge of cosmetics

2023-07-30 21:50 Guangdong Provincial Bureau Government Affairs Web

Makeup cosmetics are cosmetics used to modify the face and nails, beautify the face and add charm. Including: foundation, powder cake, rouge and body makeup; Eye makeup products: eyebrows, eye shadows, eyelids, eyelashes, eye makeup remover, etc. Other make-up cosmetics include: powder, lipstick, nail polish, eyebrow pencil, eye shadow cream, eyelash belt and mask.

1. Lipstick Lipstick, also known as lipstick, was called "oral fat" in ancient times. Lipstick has existed in China since the Han Dynasty and is still in use today. Using lipstick to trace the lip shape can not only keep the lips rosy and beautiful, but also protect them from chapping. Lipstick is very close to the mouth, so the product is required to be safe and harmless. The main raw materials, such as oil, wax, pigment and essence, must strictly meet the requirements of China's Hygienic Standard for Cosmetics. High-quality lipstick should have the following properties: (1) The product should be non-irritating to the lips, safe for human use and free from unpleasant smells. (2) The paste is delicate in constitution, bright in color, moderate in hardness, convenient to apply, free from greasy feeling, strong in adhesion and easy to melt when touching the lips. (3) Temperature change has little influence. High temperature is constant, low temperature is not dry. (4) The color wax fastness can be maintained for 5-6 hours, and the color is not affected by diet and smoking. The main raw materials of lipstick are oil, wax, pigment and essence. Among them, oil and wax are the matrix of lipstick, and pigment is an extremely important component in lipstick. The oils commonly used in making lipstick include castor oil, olive oil, hydrogenated castor oil, hydrogenated palm oil, glyceryl monostearate, higher fatty acid esters, lanolin, cocoa butter, beeswax, ceresin, spermaceti, paraffin, vaseline, carnauba wax and so on. Castor oil is the most commonly used oil raw material in lipstick, and its main function is to give lipstick a certain viscosity. Olive oil can be used to adjust the hardness and extensibility of lipstick. Glyceryl monostearate has the function of enhancing moisture. Cocoa butter is an excellent lubricant and gloss agent for lipstick. Carnauba wax is beneficial for the paste to keep a high melting point without affecting its thixotropy. Red oxide or iron red is often used as pigment to make lipstick.

2. Rouge Rouge is a kind of beauty cosmetics that decorate and beautify cheeks. Rouge has the characteristics of fragrant smell, bright color, soft and smooth texture, convenient application, strong hiding power and adhesion. Generally, there are powder, block, paste and emulsion types. The raw materials used to make powdered rouge, such as fat powder and cheek fat block, are roughly the same as those used in powder. There are mainly talcum powder, kaolin, zinc white powder, titanium dioxide, calcium carbonate, zinc stearate, magnesium stearate, starch, adhesive, preservative, pigment and essence. To make creamy fat, common oils, waxes, emulsifiers, water, pigments and essences are used. Cream rouge is made from oil and pigment as the main raw materials.

3, eye cosmetics Eye cosmetics are cosmetic cosmetic products that modify and beautify the eyes. It includes eyebrow pencil, eyeliner, eye shadow cream, mascara and so on.

(1) Eyebrow Pencil As a cosmetic, it requires moderate quality, easy drawing, natural color, no breakage when used, no frost on the surface of the refill and no shrinkage after long storage. There are two forms of eyebrow pencil, one is pencil type, and the other is push tube type. Push-tube eyebrow pencil is to put the refill in a slender metal or plastic tube, and push it out to thrush when using it. The colors of eyebrow pencil are black, brown or dark gray. The main raw materials of pencil eyebrow pencil are paraffin wax, beeswax, ceresin, petrolatum, carnauba wax, lanolin, cocoa butter and pigment. Its manufacturing method is completely like making pencil lead, and the wax block mixed with pigment is injected out by pressure in a layering machine. After all the grease and wax are mixed and melted, the pigment is added and stirred for about 3-4 hours. After being stirred evenly, it is poured into a pan for condensation, cut into thin slices, ground and rolled twice by a grinder, and then pressed into a refill by a layering machine. The main raw materials used in the push arm eyebrow pencil are paraffin, beeswax, insect wax, liquid paraffin, vaseline, white oil, lanolin and pigment. Its manufacturing method is different from pencil eyebrow pencil. The pigment, proper amount of vaseline and white oil are ground evenly in a three-roll machine to form pigment slurry, all the grease wax is heated and melted in a pot, then the pigment slurry is added and stirred evenly, and then poured into a mold to make a refill.

(2) Eye shadow cream Eye shadow cream is a beauty cosmetic that is applied to the upper and lower eyelids around the eye socket to set off the eyes. The colors of common eye shadow cream are blue, green, brown, gray and so on. The main raw materials of eye shadow cream are white oil, vaseline, white wax, ceresin, carnauba wax, lanolin derivatives and pigments, and the production process is basically the same as that of cream products. The appearance and packaging of eye shadow cream are similar to lipstick.

(3) Mascara Mascara is a paste-like beauty cosmetics that can modify and beautify eyelashes, increase their color and promote their growth. The colors of mascara are black and brown. The main raw materials of mascara are stearic acid, beeswax, paraffin wax, Sichuan wax, carnauba wax, lanolin, glyceryl monostearate, soaps, inorganic pigments, water and preservatives. The production process mainly includes: heating, melting, stirring, emulsifying, adding pigment, grinding and rolling, molding and filling of raw materials. The adopt pigments are carbon black and iron oxide brown. The forms are paste and oil. High-quality eyelash cosmetics must have the following properties: ① No irritation to eyes and skin, even if it accidentally enters eyes, it will not hurt eyes. (2) It has moderate luster to ensure the use effect. ③ The organization is even and delicate, which is convenient to use and easy to brush, and will not cause eyelashes to harden and agglomerate after use. ④ It has moderate dryness, is not affected by moisture, and will not stick to the eyelids after drying. Removing makeup is easy.

4, nail cosmetics (1) nail polish nail polish is a beauty cosmetics used to modify nails to increase their beauty. Nail polish has red, green, black, yellow and other colors. China is dominated by red or light red. Generally speaking, high-quality nail polish must have the following properties: ① It has a certain viscosity and can be coated on nails smoothly. (2) uniform color, maintain the specified tone and luster. ③ Fast drying and film formation. After the film is formed, there is no air hole or fuzzy feeling on the film. (4) has a strong adhesion, not easy to peel off. ⑤ Nail polish remover is easy to remove and clean. ⑥ The product will not damage nails, and it is safe and non-toxic. In order to ensure the above properties and good quality of nail polish, the main raw materials of nail polish are strictly limited, including film forming agent, resin, plasticizer, solvent and pigment. Film-forming agents include nitrocellulose, cellulose acetate, ethyl cellulose, polyethylene compounds and methyl acrylate polymers. But the most commonly used is nitrocellulose, also known as nitrocellulose. Resin is an indispensable raw material in nail polish. Adding a proper amount of resin can improve the brightness and adhesion of the product. Natural resins commonly used are shellac and dama resin. Commonly used synthetic resins are alkyd resin, acrylic resin and nitrocellulose. Plasticizer is to make the coating film produced by the product soft and not easy to shrink and become brittle. Plasticizers commonly used in nail polish include camphor, castor oil, benzoic acid cheese, tributyl phosphate cheese, tricresyl phosphate cheese, dioctyl phthalate cheese, triethyl phosphate acetylene citrate tributyl cool and so on. When selecting plasticizer, it must be noted that the selected plasticizer has good mutual solubility with nitrocellulose, resin and solvent, and is odorless, nontoxic and less volatile. The ideal plasticizers are camphor and citric acid. The solvent used in nail polish must be able to dissolve nitrocellulose, resin, plasticizer, etc. Pigment can not only give bright colors to nail polish, but also play an opaque role. Insoluble pigments and pigments, such as Lisuo red, are generally used. Salt-based dyes are generally used in transparent nail polish. If a proper amount of pearlescent pigment is used in the product, the nail polish can produce pearlescent effect.

(2) Nail polish remover Nail polish remover is a special product for removing nail polish. Generally speaking, nail polish is not easy to be washed off by soap and water, and it must be removed with a solvent mixture of nitrocellulose and resin. When the nail polish remover dissolves and removes the nail polish, it will also remove the lipid on the nail at the same time. Therefore, fatty substances such as fatty acid esters or lanolin derivatives are often used in the nail polish remover. Nail polish remover can be divided into acetone and acetone-free nail polish remover. Acetone-free nail polish remover is widely used at home and abroad because it has no degreasing effect on nails. (Source: Guangdong Provincial Bureau Government Affairs Website)